ПРОБЛЕМЫ КАЧЕСТВЕННОГО И КОЛИЧЕСТВЕННОГО АНАЛИЗА ЛЕТУЧИХ ВЕЩЕСТВ РАСТЕНИЙ

Алексей (Aleksej) Васильевич (Vasil'evich) Ткачев (Tkachev)

Аннотация


За последние 15–20 лет значительно изменились стратегии анализа летучих веществ растений вследствие внедрения новых подходов к пробоподготовке и анализу, в том числе и подходов, разработанных для других областей и применяемых в настоящее время к анализу растительных веществ. Любой анализ растительных веществ состоит из двух этапов. Первый этап – это сбор, первичная обработка, консервация, хранение и экстракция растительного материала с целью подготовить пробы для исследования. Второй этап — это собственно анализ подготовленных проб с использованием того или иного набора хроматографических, спектральных  и/или гибридных методов.  Зачастую в научных публикациях внимание сосредоточено на втором этапе, а то, что происходит с биоматериалом на первом этапе, находится «за кадром». Однако именно на первом этапе происходят значимые процессы, без учета которых невозможно правильно и адекватно оценить конечный результат выполненного исследования. На обоих этапах исследовательской работы возникают специфические проблемы, обсуждению которых и посвящен настоящий обзор.

Широкое распространение новейшего газохроматографического оборудования, оснащенного современными программными средствами, привело к тому, что значительная часть эксперимента осуществляется в автоматическом режиме. Однако надо понимать, что совершенствование техники эксперимента не меняет основ метода, а потому не устраняет принципиальных ограничений данного метода исследования. Поэтому хроматографические или хромато-масс-спектрометрические данные, получаемые в автоматическом режиме, должны быть подвергнуты беспристрастной ревизии со стороны экспериментатора с учетом всех известных ограничений, свойственных тому или иному хроматографическому методу разделения или детектирования компонентов, чтобы избежать ошибок при публикации результатов. Для правильной интерпретации получаемых данных необходимо знать всю историю анализируемого образца, а для этого все манипуляции с растительным материалом — от сбора сырья и до финальной пробоподготовки — должны быть самым тщательным образом задокументированы. Только в этом случае можно рассчитывать на получение значимых результатов исследования.

Ключевые слова


летучие вещества растений; газовая хроматография; хромато-масс-спектрометрия; качественный анализ; количественный анализ; детекторы; стандарты; артефакты

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Литература


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