ДОМАШНИЙ СКОТ В ЖИЗНИ ЕКАТЕРИНБУРГА В XIX ВЕКЕ ПО МАТЕРИАЛАМ ОХРАННЫХ РАСКОПОК НА УЛИЦЕ ДЕКАБРИСТОВ, 69

  • А.Ю. Рассадников Институт истории и археологии УрО РАН Email: ralu87@mail.ru
Ключевые слова: археозоология, городская археология, домашний скот, крупный рогатый скот, диета, разделка, палеопатология, липпинг, экзостозы, депрессии суставной поверхности

Аннотация

В статье опубликованы результаты археозоологического исследования фаунистических остатков из жилого участка города Екатеринбурга, относящегося к XIX в. Целью работы является реконструкция системы мясного питания жителей города и различных аспектов, связанных с характеристиками забитого на мясо скота. Материалы работы – кости домашнего скота, которые являются отходами от приготовления пищи. Рассматривается также ряд костяных изделий, представленных игральными костями и предметами быта. При обработке костей домашних животных использовались общепринятые археозоологические методики. Для интерпретации патологий на костях домашнего скота использовались сравнительные данные по современному мясному крупному рогатому скоту. Анализ остеологической коллекции продемонстрировал заметное превалирование костей крупного рогатого скота над всеми остальными видами домашних животных. В рационе жителей Екатеринбурга XIX в. говядина имела первостепенное значение. Разделка туш забитого скота осуществлялась с помощью топора. Палеопатологический анализ не выявил свидетельств неудовлетворительных условий содержания скота и факта рабочего использования быков.

Скачивания

Данные скачивания пока недоступны.

Metrics

Загрузка метрик ...

Биография автора

А.Ю. Рассадников, Институт истории и археологии УрО РАН

кандидат исторических наук, научный сотрудник

Литература

Andrianova L.S., Gimranov D.O., Devyashin M.M., Yashina O.V. Issledovanie faunisticheskih ostatkov iz raskopok na Kremlevskoj ploshchadi g. Vologdy v 2011 godu [Investigation of the Faunal Remains from the on the Kremlin square Excavations in Vologda in 2011]. Vestnik Vologodskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: istoricheskie i filologicheskie nauki [Vologda State University Bulletin. Series: Historical and Philological Sciences]. 2020. №1 (16). Pp. 8–16.
Baidin V.I. Evolyuciya social’no-kul’turnogo i bytovogo oblika verhushki ural’skoj burzhuazii v konce XVIII – nachale XX v. (Na primere sem’i ekaterinburgskih kupcov Kazancevyh) [The Evolution of the Socio-Cultural and Everyday Appearance of the Top of the Ural Bourgeoisie in the Late 18th – Early 20th Centuries. (On the example of the Kazantsev family of Yekaterinburg merchants)]. Ural’skij sbornik. Istoriya. Kul’tura. Religiya [Ural Collection. History. Culture. Religion]. Ekaterinburg : [B.i.], 1997. Vol. 1. Pp. 17–27.
Bachura O.P., Lobanova T.V. Kosti zhivotnyh iz kuhonnyh otbrosov russkogo naseleniya Ekaterinburga v XVIII–XX vekah [Animal bones from the Kitchen Waste of the Russian Population of Yekaterinburg in the 18th – 20th Centuries]. Kul’tura russkih v arheologicheskih issledovaniyah [Russian Culture in Archaeological Research]. Omsk : Nauka, 2017. Pp. 363–368.
Bachura O.P., Lobanova T.V., Bobkovskaya N.E. Zhivotnovodstvo russkogo naseleniya v gorodah na severe Urala i Sibiri v XVII–XIX vekah [Livestock Breeding of the Russian Population in the Cities in the North of the Urals and Siberia in the 17th–19th Centuries]. Kul’tura russkih v arheologicheskikh issledovaniyah: mezhdisciplinarnye metody i tehnologii [Russian Culture in Archaeological Research: Interdisciplinary Methods and Technologies: Interdisciplinary Methods and Technologies]. Omsk : Omskij institut (filial) RGTEU, 2011. Pp. 271–275.
Bachura O.P., Lobanova T.V., Vizgalov G.P., Martynovich N.V., Gimranov D.O. Hozyajstvennye aspekty zhiznedeyatel’nosti naseleniya goroda Enisejska v XVII–XIX vekah (po osteologicheskim materialam iz usad’by Balandina) [Economic Aspects of the Life of the Population of the City of Yeniseisk in the 17th – 19th Centuries (based on osteological materials from the Balandin estate)]. Povolzhskayia Arheologiya [Volga Archeology]. 2020. №1 (31). Pp. 184–196. http://doi.org/10.24852/pa2020.1.01/184.196.
Klement’ev A.M., Galuhin L.L. Arheozoologicheskie issledovaniyia krasnoyarskoj zagorodnoj usad’by kon. XIX – nach. XX v. (po materialam issledovanij 2013 g. Stoyanki Nikolaevka-1) [Archeozoological Research of the Krasnoyarsk Country Estate in the End of the 19th – Early 20th Century (based on research materials of 2013, Nykolaevka-1 site)]. Preodolenie vremeni i prostranstva. Stat’i po aktual’nym problemam oranno-spasatel’nyh rabot na pamyatnika arheologii Srednej Sibiri [Overcoming Time and Space. Articles on Topical Problems of Security and Rescue Operations at Archeological Sites of Central Siberia]. Irkutsk : Izd-vo In-ta geografii im. V.B. Sochavy SO RAN, 2019. Pp. 153–166.
Klement’ev A.M., Lysenko D.N. Zhivotnye v gorodsji usad’be Enisejska v XVII–XVIII vekah (po arheozoologicheskim materialam iz raskopok usad’by Evseeva) [Animals in the City Estate of Yeniseisk in the 17th–18th Centuries (based on archaeozoological materials from the excavations of the Yevseyev estate)]. Preodolenie vremeni i prostranstva. Stat’i po aktual’nym problemam ohranno-spasatel’nyh rabot na pamyatnikah arheologii Srednej Sibiri [Overcoming Time and Space. Articles on Topical Problems of Security and Rescue Operations at Archaeological Sites of Central Siberia]. Irkutsk : Izd-vo Ins-ta geografii im. V.B. Sochavy SO RAN, 2019. Pp. 145–152.
Konev S.V. Gorod Ekaterinburg. Sbornik istoriko-statisticheskih i spravochnyh svedji po gorodu, s adresnym ukazatelem i s prisoedineniem nekotoryh svedenij po Ekaterinburgskomu uezdu. Izdanie Ekaterinburgskogo gorodskogo glavy I.I. Simanova [The Yekaterinburg City. A Collection of Historical, Statistical and Reference Information on the City, with an Address Index and with the Addition of Some Information on the Yekaterinburg District. The Publication of the Yekaterinburg City Head I.I. Simanov]. Ekaterinburg : Tipografiya “Ekaterinburgskoj nedeli”, 1889. 1266 p.
Maslakov V.V. Ekaterinburg. Enciklopediya [Yekaterinburg. Encyclopedia]. Ekaterinburg : Akademkniga, 2002. 728 p.
Mikityuk V.P. Rol’ ekaterinburgskih predprinimatelej v razvitii salotopennoji otrasli Permskoi gubernii (konec XVIII – nachalo XX v.) [The Role of Yekaterinburg Entrepreneurs in the Development of the Grease-Heating Industry of the Perm Province (late 18th – early 20th centuries)]. Ural industrial’nyji. Bakuninskie chteniya. Industrial’naya modernizaciya Rossii v XVIII–XXI vv.: v 2 t. [Industrial Urals. Bakunin Rreadings. Industrial Modernization of Russia in the 18th – 21st Centuries: in 2 Volumes]. Ekaterinburg : UrO RAN, 2018. V. 1. Pp. 179–189.
Mikityuk V.P. Diversifikaciya proizvodstvennoj deyatel’nosti ekaterinburgskih predprinimatelej vo vtoroj polovine XIX – nachale XX v. [Diversification of Production Activities of Yekaterinburg Entrepreneurs in the Second Half of the 19th - early 20th Centuries]. Istoricheskie vyzovy i ekonomicheskoe razvitie Rossii [Historical Challenges and Economic Development of Russia]. Ekaterinburg : Al’faPrint, 2019. Pp. 234–238.
Mozel’ H. Materialy dlya geografii i statistiki Rossii, sobrannye oficerami general’nogo shtaba. Permskaya guberniya. Ch. II [Materials for Geography and Statistics of Russia, Collected by Officers of the General Staff. The Perm Province. Part II]. St. Petersburg : Tipografiya F. Persona, 1864. 746 p.
Plasteeva N.A., Devyashin M.M. Mlekopitayushchie iz raskopok verhnego posada Tobol’ska [Mammals from the Excavations of the Upper Settlement of Tobolsk]. AB ORIGINE: arheologo-etnograficheskij sbornik Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [AB ORIGINE: Archaeological and Ethnographic Collection of Tyumen State University]. Tiumen’ : Izd-vo Tyumenskogo gos. un-ta, 2013. V. 5. Pp. 114–119.
Rassadnikov A.Yu. Arheozoologicheskie materialy (XIX vek) iz raskopok Ekaterinburga [Archaeozoological Materials (the 10th century) from the Excavations of Yekaterinburg]. Vestnik arheologii, antropologii i etnografii [Bulletin of Archaeology, Anthropology and Ethnography]. 2019. №3 (46). Pp. 75–85. DOI: 10.20874/2071-0437-2019-46-3-075-085.
Calkin V.I. Drejishie domashnie zhivotnye Vostochnoj Evropy [The Oldest Domestic Animals in Eastern Europe]. M. : Nauka, 1970. 279 p.
Yahno O.N. Tehnologicheskie innovacii i povsednevnaya zhizn’ gorozhan na rubezhe XIX–XX vekov [Technological Innovation and Everyday Life of Townspeople at the Turn of the 19th – 20th Centuries]. Ural industrial’nyji. Bakuninskie chteniya. Industrial’naya modernizaciya Rossii v XVIII–XXI vv.: v 2 t. [Industrial Urals. The Bakunin Readings. Industrial Modernization of Russia in the 18th – 21st Centuries: in 2 Volumes]. Ekaterinburg : UrO RAN, 2018. V. 1. Pp. 273–282.
Albarella U., Serjeantson D. A Passion for Pork: Meat Consumption at the British Late Neolithic Site of Durrington Walls. Consuming Passions and Patterns of Consumption. Cambridge : Monographs of the McDonald Institute, 2002. Pp. 33–49.
Bartosiewicz L., Van Neer W., Lentacker A. Draught Cattle: Their Osteological Identification and History. Tervuren : Annales du Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Sciences Zoologiques, 1997. 281 p.
Behrensmeyer K. Taphonomic and Ecologic Information from Bone Weathering. Paleobiology. 1978. №4 (2). P. 150–162. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2400283.
Daroczi-Szabo M. Animal Diseases at a Celtic-Roman Village in Hungary. Current Research in Animal Paleopathology. Proceedings of the Second ICAZ Animal Paleopathology Working Group Conference. Oxford : Archaeopress, 2008. Pp. 57–62.
De Cupere B., Lentacker A., Van Neer W., Waelkens M., Verslype L. Osteological Evidence for the Draught Exploitation of Cattle: First Application of a New Methodology. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. 2000. №10. Pp. 254–267.
Dottrens E. Etude preliminaire: Les phalanges osseuses de Bos taurus domesticus. Rev. Suisse de Zool. 1946. №53 (33). Pp. 739–774.
Higham C.F.W., Kijngam A., Manly B.F.J., Moore S.J.E. The Bovid Third Phalanx and Prehistoric Ploughing. Journal of Archaeological Science. 1981. №8. Pp. 353–365. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-4403(81)90035-2.
Lin M., Miracle P., Barker G. Towards the Identification of the Exploitation of Cattle Labour from Distal Metapodials. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2016. №66. Pp. 44–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2015.12.006.
O’Connor T. The Archaeology of Animal Bones. Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Limited, 2004. 300 p.
O’Connor T. On the Differential Diagnosis of Arthropathy in Bovids. Documenta Archaebiologae. 2008. Pp. 165–186.
Silver I. The Ageing of Domestic Animals. Science in Archaeology: a Survey of Progress and Research. London : Thames and Hudson, 1969. Pp. 283–302.
Stevanovic O., Janeczek M., Chroszcz A., Markovic N. Joint Diseases in Animal Paleopathology: Veterinary Approach. Mac Vet Rev. 2015. №38 (1). i–viii. http://dx.doi.org/10.14432/j.macvetrev.2014.10.024.
Teichert M. Osteometrische Untersuchungen zur Berechnung der Wiederristhohe bei Schafen. Archaeozoological studies (Kongress Groningen 1974). Amsterdam, Oxford, 1975. Pp. 51–69.
Telldahl Y. Skeletal Changes in Lower Limb Bones in Domestic Cattle from Eketorp Ringfort on the Öland Island in Sweden. International Journal of Paleopathology. 2012. №2. Pp. 208–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpp.2012.09.002.
Telldahl Y. Ageing Cattle: The Use of Radiographic Examinations on Cattle Metapodials from Eketorp Ringfort on the Island of Öland in Sweden. PLoS ONE. 2015. 10(9): e0137109. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0137109
Thomas R., Johannsen N. Articular Depressions in Domestic Cattle Phalanges and Their Archaeological Relevance. International Journal of Paleopathology. 2011. №1 (1). Pp.43– 54. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpp.2011.02.007.
Tryon K.A., Farrow C.S. Osteochondrosis in Cattle. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice. 1999. Vol. 15 (2). Pp. 265–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-0720(15)30182-1.
Von Den Driesch A. A Guide to the Measurement of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites. Peabody Museum Bulletin 1, Harvard University, Cambridge, 1976. 137 p.
Zeder M.A., Lapham H.A. Assessing the Reliability of Criteria Used to Identify Postcranial Bones in Sheep, Ovis, and Goats, Capra. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2010. №37 (11). Pp. 2887–2905.doi:10.1016/j.jas.2010.06.032.
Zeder M.A., Pilaar S.E. Assessing the Reliability of Criteria Used to Identify Mandibles and Mandibular Teeth in Sheep, Ovis, and Goats, Capra. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2010. №37 (2). Pp. 225–242. https://doi:10.1016/j.jas.2009.10.002.
Zimmermann M.I., Pollath N., Ozbasaran M., Peters J. Joint Health in Free-Ranging and Confined Small Bovids – Implications for Early Stage Caprine Management. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2018. №92. Pp. 13–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.004.
Опубликован
2020-12-25
Как цитировать
Рассадников А. ДОМАШНИЙ СКОТ В ЖИЗНИ ЕКАТЕРИНБУРГА В XIX ВЕКЕ ПО МАТЕРИАЛАМ ОХРАННЫХ РАСКОПОК НА УЛИЦЕ ДЕКАБРИСТОВ, 69 // Теория и практика археологических исследований, 2020. Т. 32, № 4. С. 131-146 DOI: 10.14258/tpai(2020)4(32).-10. URL: http://journal.asu.ru/tpai/article/view/%2832%29.-10.
Раздел
ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ ЕСТЕСТВЕННО-НАУЧНЫХ МЕТОДОВ В АРХЕОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯХ