Sifi Вelkacem
Physical Education and Sports Institute

Zabchi Nor Еddine
University Mostaganem — Algeria

Mokrani Djamel
Physical Education and Sport Activities Programmes Evaluation Laboratory E mail: djamel.mokrani@

Следует цитировать / Citation:
Sifi Вelkacem, Zabchi Nor Еddine, Mokrani Djamel. 2019. Level of health awareness (physical

activity, dietary habits) and its sources among teachers of secondary education. Health, Physical
Culture and Sports, 2(13), рр. 65–71. (in English). URL: http://journal.asu.ru/index.php/zosh

Поступило в редакцию / Submitted 10.02.2019
Принято к публикации / Accepted 3.04.2019

Abstract. This study has an objective to know the level of health awareness and sources among
teachers of secondary learning and to achieve that studies have been done on a selected sample
spontaneously two hundred teachers of society of this research contains 861 teachers, according to the
statistical study of management education in the wilaya of Mostaganem and Relizane, representing
23.22 % of the original company a theory has been used and it is suitable for this type of study the
tool of the research was applied and comprises 30 paragraph which represent three field: lament the
personal health and physical activity and sport.

And (8) special sections for health information. After the distribution of the sample survey
of research we have gathered and then poured the study statistically while using a scan tool.After
the analysis of the survey results and the comparison with the assumptions, students researchers
concluded that the level of general health awareness among the people sample is average and
mediocre in the field of sport and physical activity, and sources that teachers take their health
information are media means.

It is therefore necessary to make collective efforts at all levels, local, regional and global, to
promote health awareness through educating the community, training officials, developing their
sense of health awareness

As educational institutions have particularities, they occupy a distinct position in change and
development in order to cope with developments. Secondary education teachers are the people who
carry out secondary school practices, which are the transfer of knowledge and experience to their
pupils, the mainstay of the educational process. The success of education in achieving its goal in our
new world.

Keywords: health awareness- sources of health information — physical activity-dietary habits


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Introduction. The level of health awareness of peoples is one of the measures of progress and progress
Developed countries provide different servic-

es to their people of different ages, where they are
provided with health care and spend in that effort
and money is fully aware of the importance of this
matter and its impact on the members of society
in the advancement of health level, and the im-
portance of health, the United Nations established
the United Nations Health Organization Was es-
tablished in 1946 as a specialized agency for the
purpose of reaching all the peoples to the highest
possible standard of health on the basis that it is re-
sponsible for supervising the health programs ap-
plied worldwide and supporting those programs
in developing countries, especially those related to
disease prevention. Atherh in maintaining human
health.It is now scientifically proven that the reg-
ular exercise of at least moderate physical activity
and the high physical fitness of the individual car-
ry in their fold many positive effects on the various
functions of the body and bring many health ben-
efits to the human being. Conversely, physical in-
activity and restlessness lead to a range of negative
effects on both individual and community health
(Fletcher et al., 1996) (Blair, et al., 1996).

As an inevitable result of strong evidence and
scientific indicators that point to the close rela-
tionship between physical activity on the one hand
and human and psychological health on the oth-
er, many recommendations and guidance docu-
ments have been issued by many health organiza-
tions and scientific bodies concerned with human
health, To adopt a more active lifestyle and move-
ment by members of society, and calls on govern-
ments and NGOs to enact legislation to encour-
age the exercise of physical activity, and among the
most important of these documents, for example,
issued by the National Center for the fight against
women And control of the American College of
Sports Medicine (Pate, et al 1995)..

Which was the nucleus of the landmark report
of the Chief Physician and Surgeon of the United
States of America (1996), as well as the documents
issued by the World Health Organization (WHO),
which culminated in the 2004 issue of its Interna-
tional Strategy for Food and Physical Activity.

As health awareness is of paramount impor-
tance in the lives of individuals and communities
as a tool for promoting health and an important
factor in helping people to enjoy it and the corner-
stone of positive change in the behavior of indi-
viduals and communities, especially those who are
educated because of their strong attachment and
attachment to the concepts of this aspect of con-
sciousness, The real role played by health sources
in the field of health awareness through scientif-
ic research on the arrangement of these means as
sources and patterns of use and follow-up to the
extent of benefit in the acquisition of healthy be-
havior. (Al-Mazroui, 1992, p. 103)

The sources of health education are person-
al communication, family, friends, civil society,
health institutions and the audiovisual media. The
latter is represented by television. The Internet
is one of the most important sources of health
knowledge and plays an important role in achiev-
ing health awareness. Technologies and possibili-
ties of these means and their impact on the recipi-
ent according to the potential of all means, and in
view of this technical development in the potential
of these means, we expect them to play a vital role
and concrete in the field of awareness.Spreading
health awareness among members of the commu-
nity achieves an ideal level of health through phys-
ical activity. A person can not maintain his health
if he does not have the necessary health education
and awareness. Physical inactivity is the fourth
major risk factor for premature death worldwide,
And insufficient physical activity is one of the four
major risk factors responsible for the alarming in-
crease in the volume of noncommunicable dis-
eases such as heart disease, cancer and diabetes.
These four factors account for more than 60 % of
the world's deaths. World Health Organization)

It is therefore necessary to make collective ef-
forts at all levels at the local, regional and global
levels to promote health awareness through edu-
cating the community, training officials, develop-
ing their sense of well-being, and their sense of
health awareness (Salma Bahaeddin, 1984, p 232).
In many countries, a significant proportion of
health expenditure is due to costs resulting from
lack of physical activity and obesity. Physical activ-
ity can be beneficial to society and the economy in


Психолого-педагогические, социально-философские вопросы духовной и физической культуры

terms of reducing health care costs, increasing pro-
ductivity, improving school performance, reduc-
ing absenteeism and increasing participation in
sports and recreational activities. In the previous
studies on health awareness and sources of health
information, Jaafari (2007) and (Kaddoumi 2009)
showed a decrease in nutrition and a decrease in
the rate of physical and athletic activity. The most
sources of health information are the media

As the educational institutions have partic-
ularities, they occupy a distinct position in the
change and development to face the latest devel-
opments. The teachers of secondary education are
the people who carry out the secondary practices
which are the transfer of expert knowledge to their
pupils, according to the teachers' (Anwar Moham-
med Al-Sharqawi, 1999). They are the mainstay of
the educational process and the main factor upon
which the success of education depends on achiev-
ing its goal in the new world. Any shortage in its ef-
ficiency due to physical inactivity and the spread of
diseases and health problems leads to frequent ab-
sences and holidays. The Satisfactory, which neg-
atively affects the level of students and the fate of
their future, and by virtue of our work as teachers
of physical education and sports, which we felt the
importance of studying the level of health aware-
ness and sources at the teachers of secondary ed-

Research Methodology:
Through the problem at our disposal, the de-

scriptive approach in the survey method seems
more appropriate.

1–2 — Research community: The research
community is represented by some 861 secondary

school teachers in some secondary schools of Mo-
staganem and Gleizan.

1–3 — Research Sample: The research com-
munity was randomly selected from the professors
(861) professors and professors, according to the
statistics of the Education Directorate of Mostag-
anem and Glizan.The researchers selected a sam-
ple of (200) professors and professors from the re-
search community. This sample represents about
23.22 % of the study population.

Where the standard included (30) paragraph

represent behavioral practices associated with
health awareness, The response ladder of five re-
sponses is: Strongly agreeable (5), OK (4), Neutral
(3), Fair (2), Strongly, It also included (08) para-
graphs on the sources of health information, and
the response ladder consists of three responses: (3)
degrees, weak (2) degrees, have no role (1) Positive.
It was presented to a group of experts and doctors
to reach the final version and Annex No. (1) clar-
ifies the tool, and Annex (2) clarifies the names of
the arbitrators and their scientific rank and place
of work.

Basic Study:
After the arbitration of the scale and correct-

ed by the professors and doctors and access to the
final version of the form. The field study was car-
ried out within the educational institutions repre-
sented in some of the secondary schools of Mosta-
ganem and Gleizan, to distribute the scale to the
sample members with the help of teachers teachers
who supervised themselves on the process, We col-
lected the forms, emptied them and treated them

Number Equivalent Rate- Percentages — Level of Health Awareness

01 80 % and above is a very high Level of Health Awareness
02 70 % 79.9 % — High Level of Health Awareness
03 60 % — 69.9 % Average Level of Health Awareness
04 50–59.9 % Low Level of Health Awareness
05 Less than 50 % Level of Health Awareness is very low


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Table (40): The arithmetical averages represent the standard deviations and the ratio of the areas of
health awareness of teachers to secondary education (n = 200)

Health awareness levelPercentagesAll sample

deviationThe arithmeticAxes health

All sample

high71.60 %3.5535.80Feeding axis01

high73.74 %4.8236.87Personal Health axis02

Low59.58 %4.3929.79Axis of the physical activity and sport03

Average68.30 %34.154.25Total degree of health awareness

Table (05): Represents the observed frequencies, percentages and k2 of the feeding axis of the form
submitted to the teachers Secondary education:

Ca 2

Ca 2


Level of

frequencypercentage%Duplicates seenAnswer in degrees


16Strongly Agree
00Strongly opposed

200Total of each axis

Table (06): Represents the observed frequencies, percentages and Ka2 of the personal health axis of
the form submitted to the teachers Secondary education:

Ca 2

Ca 2


Level of

frequencypercentage%Duplicates seenAnswer in degrees


16Strongly Agree
00Strongly opposed

200Total of each axis

Table (07): Represents the observed frequencies, percentages, and Ka2 of the physical activity exercise
of the form submitted to the teachers Secondary education:

Ca 2

Ca 2


Level of

frequencypercentage%Duplicates seenAnswer in degrees


16Strongly Agree
00Strongly opposed

200Total of each axis


Психолого-педагогические, социально-философские вопросы духовной и физической культуры

Table (08): The arithmetical averages represent the standard deviations and the percentage of sources
of access to health information for teachers Secondary education (n = 200)

Ca 2

Ca 2


Level of

frequencypercentage%Duplicates seenAnswer in degrees


16Strongly Agree
00Strongly opposed

200Total of each axis

The level of health awareness in nutrition was

high, because of the nature of the sample used and
the scale of the food. The teachers may also be the
most healthy culture by acquiring information and
belief in the importance of good health habits in
terms of nutrition, and their keenness to prevent
obesity, diabetes and hardening of the arteries.

The result of the field of nutrition is in
contrast with the study of (Nasser Al-Qadoumi
2009) aimed at identifying the level of nutritional
awareness among students in the field of Physical
Education at An-Najah National University and
Sultan Qaboos University.

The results of the study (Jaafari Ali Abdullah
2007) aimed to identify the sources of access
to health information and the level of health
awareness among high school students. The results
found that a low level of nutrition in the students.

Through these studies we find that most
students and students follow unhealthy habits in
nutrition because of their housing in the student
dormitories, and return to fast food and unhealthy,
in addition to smoking, which reduces the appetite
leading to malnutrition.

As for the teachers will live with their families,
which reflects positively on the attention to the
level of health more, and the ability to apply these
health behaviors in daily life, continuously earned
by the form of habit that directs the ability of the
individual in the determination of his household
duties integrated and maintain the health and
vitality within the limits of potential, What
distinguishes between students and professors.

We conclude that food awareness is the goal
that we must strive for and do not just keep
information as a culture (Salameh, 2002). A person

needs a large number of nutrients so that his body
can perform his functions to the fullest.

By looking at the scales, the highest level of
health awareness was found to be high in personal
health. This is due to the nature of public life.
Most teachers have an interest in their personal
health. Hygiene is necessary in terms of health. It
is one of the important means for the prevention
of infectious diseases and is one of the most
important means of maintaining health, so that
Islam considers it half of the faith, as the Prophet
peace be upon him, “Tahrh cut faith” (Narrated by
Muslim from Abu Malik Ashari)

The teacher is the main factor in the success
of health education and achievement of its goals,
and a model of his behavior to his disciples imitate
and imitate him during their interaction with
their environment. The teacher's knowledge of
health education in all its aspects enables him to
communicate it to his students in a simple and
interesting way, so that the teachers team works in
harmony and integration to increase the awareness
of the learners about health education issues.

And the lowest level of health awareness in
the field of physical and athletic activity, and the
reason for this is due to the lack of interest in
physical activity and sports for teachers, where
the man in most parts of the world now lives a
passive life of movement, he is riding instead of
walking, To stand and watch instead of being
exercised, because of the emergence of technical
development and the resulting reduction of human
movement and the different lifestyle of an active
worker who plows his land or takes care of his
cattle or walks in the convoys of his trade, to a
lazy individual seeking maximum comfort. (1433,
?User Name Remember Me (مبيضين, السكران


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The results of the studies were reported by
Khatib Abdullah Mohammed, Rawashdeh Ibrahim
Faisal, 2003, on the level of health awareness
among female students in Jordanian colleges. The
results showed a decrease in the physical activity
rate among university students and the prevalence
of smoking and physical inactivity.

The physical exertion that was done by the
human and even the physical efforts are limited
and frequent and this makes them lose the human
flexibility and sensitivity and ability to resist
diseases such as obesity and complain of diseases
was not complained of by such diseases such as
blood circulation, nervous system, Psychiatry,
medicine has been able to control most of the
muscle, but it stood in front of many of them and
the return of the movement of man from the life
of activity and movement to the life of laziness
and inactivity, which led to more physical analysis
and thus inability to fulfill its basic duties Because
it requires m He has a great deal of fitness to do
these duties.

In 2011, the Heads of State and Government of
the United Nations renewed calls for Member States
to take concrete steps to reduce physical inactivity
within the framework of the Political Declaration
of the High-level Meeting of the United Nations
General Assembly on the Prevention and Control
of Noncommunicable Diseases. In 2013, the World
Health Assembly adopted a voluntary global goal of
reducing physical inactivity by 10 % by 2025.

(World Health Organization, World Health
Organization, 2014).

We conclude from the above that the reason
for the low level of health awareness is the lack of
interest in physical activity as it plays a role in the
level of public health,

That there is a wide interest of the professors
in these sources, and this is what is shown in the
results of Table (08), which shows the value of the
averages and standard deviations and percentages.

The results were also derived from the tables
representing respectively the observed frequencies,
percentages and Ka 2. Which shows that the most
sources that draw teachers from their health
information are the media represented in television
and radio, which came in the first place, followed
directly by friends and peers and the world of the

Internet, and occupies reading, parents and home
and health institutions and civil society and the
subjects of the University last mattresses, Sources
on which teachers are not dependent on health

The media has become an influential tool in
the development and change of behaviors and
practices. Its content has become a class of ideas
describing life-changing standards. These tools
have become a powerful force by controlling the
sources of information on which the members of
society, its elites, groups and organizations rely
on opinions, decisions and goals. (Hassan Imad
Makkawi, Laila Hassi, 1998, p. 320).

The results of the hypothesis contradict
Reagan and Collins’ 1987 findings in a study
entitled “Sources of Health Care Information in
the United States of America.” The study found that
the media, such as radio and television, did not
rely on them as sources of information on health
care methods. (1 %) of the total sample. Therefore,
they were excluded from the analysis. Personal
contact sources are among the main sources
for obtaining specific information regarding
their health status. This result is in line with the
current study for friends and peers, Environment
Educational institutions are among the most
affected environments in which teachers influence
each other. However, it is possible to say that this
source of information may have two different sides.
It is possible that teachers have a range of incorrect
or correct health information. Addressed to them.

1 — The results of the current study showed

that the level of public health awareness among
teachers of the secondary stage was average.

2 — The results of the present study showed
that the highest level of health awareness among
professors was low in the field of physical activity
and sports.

3. The results of the present study showed that
the media (audio and visual) contribute to the
introduction of health education materials very
high, which are both television and radio.

4 — The results of the current study showed
that the most sources of health information are
peers and friends who came in second place
followed by the Internet.


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