spring wheat
immature embryo
donor plant
growing conditions
plant regeneration

How to Cite



The article considers the influence of growth conditions of donor plants on in vitro morphogenetic responses of immature embryos from spring bread wheat. The materials were 12 varieties of different ecological and geographical origin from the collection of Altai Research Institute of Agriculture (Barnaul, Russia). Donor plants were grown in the greenhouse and experimental field near Barnaul. Immature embryos with 1.3–1.5 mm in size isolated from seeds collected 14–16 days post anthesis were used as explants. The embryos were placed with the sculletum upwards on a sterile solid agar (0,8%) medium containing the inorganic components of Linsmaier & Skoog (LS), 3% sucrose, 2.0 mg l-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and incubated in the darkness at 26±1°C. Induced calli were subcultured after 25–30 days interval in fresh medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 2,4-D and 0.5 mg l-1 kinetin and grown at 25±1 °C under a 16/8-h (day/night) photoperiod with a white fluorescent light. Embryogenic calli were transferred to LS medium containing 0.2 mg l-1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) for regeneration. A complete randomized block design with four replications per a genotype (60 embryos) was used. We stated by analysis of the components of phenotypic variance that genetic factor has been the leading one in all stages of tissue culture, but the highest effect (80%) was on plant regeneration. Interaction of the factors considered was competitive with genotypic influence on the stages of morphogenesis (28%) and callusogenesis (27%). Influence of “conditions” was statistically significant, but inferior to other factors. The greatest result was obtained for induction of morphogenic calli. Field conditions were the most favorable for genotypes with high callus and regeneration abilities. Culture responses of those with a low regeneration potential increased after growing donor plants in greenhouse vegetation in 3.4 – 13.9 times. For most genotypes moderate temperature and precipitation as well as natural lighting before collecting material increased morphogenic competence of explants in wheat tissue culture. Possible reasons for the influence of growth conditions of explant donor plants on in vitro culture traits have been discussed.


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