Changes in Middle Ob fish diversity: an analytical review
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.10435646

Changes in Middle Ob fish diversity: an analytical review

Novosibirsk branch of Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (ZapSibNIRO), 1 Pisareva St., Novosibirsk, Russia; Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, Russia
Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, Russia
Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, Russia
Department of History, School of Humanities and Arts, NRU HSE, 17 Promyshlennaya St., St. Petersburg, Russia
Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, Russia
Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, Russia
Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, Russia
Alien species climatic changes fish hydraulic construction natural resource management Ob Siberia


The Ob River is the largest river in Eurasia, and its ichthyofauna in the Middle Ob consists of species that inhabit not only the entire river but also the upper and lower reaches. This region faces numerous anthropogenic activities that pose a significant threat to aquatic biodiversity. Therefore, changes in fish species diversity in the Middle Ob can serve as an indicator of the overall ecosystem health. This study aims to analyze these changes and their potential causes. Materials and methods: This study presents an analytical review of the Middle Ob River ichthyofauna over the past 120 years. It assesses changes in fish species diversity and discusses various natural and anthropogenic factors. Results: The ichthyofauna of the Middle Ob basin currently includes 38 fish species from 2 classes, 9 orders, 12 families, and 30 genera. Over the past century, the number of species has increased by 27%, with 9 naturalized alien species and 1 extinct species. Additionally, there has been a significant decrease in the abundance of some commercial fish species. The ichthyofauna of the Middle Ob is influenced by hydraulic construction, pollution, overexploitation of aquatic resources (especially commercially valuable fish species), the expansion of alien species, anthropogenic alteration of the river bed, and climate change. Conclusion: While most factors affect the abundance of individual fish species, they do not significantly impact fish species diversity, with the exception of alien species and pollution.

Acta Biologica Sibirica 9: 1189–1206 (2023) doi: 10.5281/zenodo.10435646

Corresponding author: Elena A. Interesova (

Academic editor: A. Matsyura | Received 5 December 2023 | Accepted 20 December 2023 | Published 29 December 2023

Citation: Interesova EA, Popkov VK, Kolesnichenko LG, Rakhmanova LYa, Romanov VI, Dyldin YuV, Kirpotin SN (2023) Changes in Middle Ob fish diversity: an analytical review. Acta Biologica Sibirica 9: 1189–1206.


Alien species, climatic changes, fish, hydraulic construction, natural resource management, Ob, Siberia


Freshwater bodies cover only about 0.8% of the Earth’s surface (Gleick 1996), yet they support a wide range of habitats and harbor up to 12% of all known species (Wrona et al. 2005; Heino et al. 2009; Wrona and Reist 2013; Reid et al. 2019), contributing to high biodiversity. The key factors influencing changes in aquatic ecosystem biodiversity include water pollution, habitat destruction, alterations in the hydrological regime, overexploitation of aquatic resources, climate change, and the spread of alien species (Revenga et al. 2000; Poff and Schmidt 2016; Winemiller et al. 2016; Dudgeon 2019; Grill et al. 2019; Dudgeon 2020; Albert et al. 2021). The Ob River is the largest river in Eurasia, stretching 3,650 km in length with a catchment area of approximately 3,000 km² (http://textual.ru2023). Hydrologically, the Ob is traditionally divided into three main areas: the upper part, from the confluence of the Biya and Katun rivers to the mouth of the Tom River (Upper Ob); the middle part, from the mouth of the Tom river to the mouth of the Irtysh river (Middle Ob); and the lower part, from the mouth of the Irtysh river to the Gulf of Ob (Lower Ob) (Korotaev 2004; Savichev and Guseva 2020). Due to its intermediate position within this basin, the ichthyofauna of the Middle Ob includes species that inhabit the entire river, as well as those predominantly found in the upper or lower reaches. Occasionally, species such as taimen (Hucho taimen) and Tumen lenok (Brachymystax tumensis) from the upper reaches of the Middle Ob are sporadically recorded in this area.

The migration routes through this area serve as spawning grounds for fish species that primarily inhabit the Lower Ob, such as the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii), muksun (Coregonus muksun), and nelma (Stenodus nelma). Occasionally, the broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus) and the humpback whitefish (C. pidschian) also travel up the Ob, beyond the mouth of the Irtysh River. Moreover, the Middle Ob is heavily impacted by various human activities, posing a significant threat to aquatic biodiversity. Large industrial centers are situated in this basin, hydrocarbon resources are extracted, there is significant fishing pressure, and the area is particularly affected by changes in the hydrological regime due to hydraulic construction. Consequently, the ichthyofauna of the Middle Ob can serve as an indicator of ecosystem health. Long-term analysis of individual fish species abundance and catch data can provide insights into existing trends in fish diversity changes. In the latter half of the twentieth century, the production volume of several commercial species in the Middle Ob basin notably declined. This decline affects not only commercially valuable fish species, such as sturgeons and whitefish (Enshina 1998; Babkin et al. 2018; Interesova et al. 2018; Krokhalevsky et al. 2018; Matkovsky 2019b; Interesova et al., 2022c), but also noncommercial species, for example, the roach (Rutilus rutilus) (Interesova and Rostovtsev 2021). Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze changes in the diversity of fish species in the Middle Ob.

Materials and methods

This study presents an analytical review of the ichthyofauna in the Middle Ob River basin, drawing on a comprehensive examination of research papers and reports published over the past 120 years. Our analysis assesses changes in fish species composition and delves into the diverse natural and anthropogenic factors impacting fish diversity in Siberia. Additionally, we conducted an in-depth analysis of official fisheries statistics for valuable commercial fish species in the Tomsk region, which serves as a representative administrative region in the Middle Ob River basin, spanning more than 80 years. The species names and taxonomy utilized in this study adhere to the conventions outlined in Romanov et al. (2017).


The first scientifically verified data on the ichthyofauna of the Ob basin was reported by Pallas in the late 18th century (Pallas 1786). Over time, the list of species was gradually refined, and by the beginning of the 20th century, it included 42 species according to existing taxonomy (Varpakhovsky 1902). Presently, a total of 52 species of lamprey and fish are known from the entire Ob River basin (Popov 2009, see Table 1).

Initial systematization of data on the ichthyofauna species composition in the middle reaches of the Ob River was carried out by N.A. Varpakhovsky (1902). However, he inadvertently omitted several small noncommercial species, such as minnow Phoxinus ujmonensis, grayling Rhynchocypris percnurus, Tom river loach Barbatula tomiana, Siberian spiny loach Cobitis sibirica, sculpin Cottus altaicus and C. sibiricus, wrongly confining their distribution only to the upper or lower reaches of the Ob. This oversight may be attributed to Varpakhovsky's exploration of the main bed of the Ob and its large tributaries, while these fish species primarily inhabit the right bank tributaries of the second and third orders. Furthermore, Varpakhovsky did not include some species (tugun Coregonus tugun, lenok, and taimen) in the Middle Ob basin, although their presence in this area at the beginning of the twentieth century is undisputed. Subsequently, M.D. Ruzsky (1920) recorded these species, affirming their existence in this area during that period.

Based on current data on grayling taxonomy in this region (Romanov 2017), the ichthyofauna of the Middle Ob at the beginning of the 20th century comprised 30 species. In the mid-20th century, B.G. Ioganzen [Johansen] (1948; 1953) revised the ichthyofauna of the Ob, including the features of the composition of lamprey and fish species in different areas of the basin. For the Middle Ob, he identified only 23 species. Notably, Ioganzen proposed a zoning scheme for the ichthyofauna and determined the southern boundary of the Middle Ob near the town of Kolpashevo, which is downstream compared to the hydrographic division of the Ob basin (Fig. 1).

Figure 1.Middle Ob basin.

Consequently, the Middle Ob River ichthyofauna does not include species from the basins of the Tom and Chulym Rivers. By the mid-20th century, the ichthyofauna of the Middle Ob was represented by 30 species due to the disappearance of tugun (Bashmakova 1949) and the naturalization of vendace Coregonus albula (Popkov 1979) in the upper Chulym Lakes.

In the late 20th century, A.N. Gundrizer et al (2000) provided data on the species composition of the ichthyofauna in the Middle Ob, considering the area from the mouth of the Tom River to the mouth of the Irtysh River as part of the Middle Ob. According to Gundrizer, this area contained 30 species of lamprey and fish. Notably, alien species such as the nine-spine stickleback Pungitius pungitius, belica Leucaspius delineatus, bleak Alburnus alburnus, and Amur sleeper Perccottus glenii were found in the lower reaches of the Tom River, but were not included in the ichthyofauna composition of the Middle Ob in this study.

G.L. Karasev (2006) also provided information on the composition of the Middle Ob, defining its southern border below the mouth of the Chulym River, near the town of Kolpashevo. This delineation was in accordance with the Middle-Ob region allocated by him, similar to the zoning proposed by B.G. Ioganzen (1953). However, the composition of lamprey and fish species in the Middle Ob region described by Karasev did not include species from the Tom and Chulym River basins. Additionally, Karasev did not include alien fish species, including those naturalized in the Ob basin, such as the common bream and common pike perch.

Taking into account the introduced species and the modern taxonomy of grayling, as well as the species inhabiting the Tom and Chulym Rivers, the ichthyofauna of the Middle Ob included 37 species at the end of the 20th century (see Table 1).

No Species name Beginning of the 20th century Middle of the 20th century End of the 20th century Beginning of the 21th century
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 Arctic lamprey Lethenteron camtschaticum (Tilesius, 1811) - + + + + +
2 Siberian lamprey * Lethenteron kessleri (Anikin, 1905) - + - + - +
3 Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (Brandt, 1869) + + + + + +
4 Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758 + + + + + +
5 Common bream Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758) - - - + - +
6 Bleak Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) - - - - - +
7 Crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) + + + + + +
8 Prussian carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) - + + + + +
9 Common carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) - - - + - +
10 Siberian gudgeon Gobio sibiricus Nikolsky, 1936 + + + + + +
11 Belica Leucaspius delineatus (Heckel, 1843) - - - - - +
12 Ide Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus, 1758) + + + + + +
13 Baikal dace Leuciscus baicalensis (Dybowski, 1874) + + + + + +
14 Altai minnow Phoxinus ujmonensis Kashchenko, 1899 - + - + + +
15 Czekanowski's minnow** Rhynchocypris czekanowskii (Dybowski, 1869) - + - - - +
16 Lake minnow Rhynchocypris percnurus (Pallas, 1814) - + + + + +
17 Roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758) + + + + + +
18 Tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758) + + + + + +
19 Siberian spiny loach Cobitis sibirica Gladkov, 1935 - + + + + +
20 Nikolsky's loach Misgurnus nikolskyi Vasil’eva, 2001 - - - - - +
21 Tom River loach Barbatula tomiana (Ruzsky, 1920) - + - + + +
22 Northern pike Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1758 + + + + + +
23 Vendace Coregonus albula (Linnaeus, 1758) - - - - - +
24 Peipus whitefish*** Coregonus maraenoides Polyakov, 1874 - - - - - +
25 Valaam whitefish*** Coregonus widegreni Malmgren, 1863 - - - - - +
26 Muksun Coregonus muksun (Pallas, 1814) + + + + + +
27 Broad whitefish Coregonus nasus (Pallas, 1776) + - + - - +
28 Peled Coregonus peled (Gmelin, 1789) + + + + + +
29 Humpback whitefish Coregonus pidschian (Gmelin, 1789) + + + - + +
30 Tugun Coregonus tugun (Pallas, 1814) - + - - - ?
31 Nelma Stenodus nelma (Pallas, 1773) + + + + + +
32 Arctic grayling Thymallus arcticus (Pallas, 1776) - + + + + +
33 Upper Ob grayling Thymallus nikolskyi Kashchenko, 1899 - - - - - +
34 Tumen lenok Brachymystax tumensis Mori, 1930 - + - + - +
35 Taimen Hucho taimen (Pallas, 1773) - + - + - +
36 Burbot Lota lota (Linnaeus, 1758) + + + + + +
37 Nine-spine stickleback Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus, 1758) - - - - - +
38 Altaic sculpin Cottus altaicus Kashchenko, 1899 - + - + - +
39 Siberian sculpin Cottus sibiricus Kessler, 1889 - + + + + +
40 Ruffe Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus, 1758) + + + + + +
41 European perch Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, 1758 + + + + + +
42 Common pike perch Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758) - - - + - +
43 Amur sleeper Perccottus glenii Dybowski, 1877 - - - - - +
Number of species listed 17 30 23 30 24 43
Total number of species in a time period, according to modern taxonomic concepts 30 30 37 38
Table 1.Changes in fish species composition in the Middle Ob basin

Alien species are indicated in bold, * at present, no evidence for the species validity is available, ** the presence of the species in the basin is doubtful; it is not considered in the study, *** the taxonomic status is debatable; it is not considered in the study. 1– Varpakhovsky 1902; 2 – Ruzskiy 1920; 3 – Ioganzen 1948, 1953; 4 – Gundrizer et al. 2000; 5 – Karasev 2006; 6 – Romanov et al. 2017.

In the 21st century, V.I. Romanov et al. (2017) conducted a revision of the composition of the Middle Ob, which included 43 species of lamprey and fish, with tugun being presumed extinct in this part of the Ob basin. Furthermore, the lack of evidence for Siberian lamprey Lethenteron kessleri as a valid species (Interesova et al. 2022a), the modern taxonomy of grayling (Romanov 2017), and the debatable taxonomy of whitefish species (Reshetnikova 2002) suggest that the ichthyofauna of the Middle Ob included 38 lamprey and fish species at the beginning of the twentieth century (see Table 1).

As such, the twentieth century saw significant changes in the composition of the Middle Ob's ichthyofauna, with species diversity increasing by 27% (Fig. 2).

Figure 2.Fish species composition dynamics in the Middle Ob.


The ichthyofauna in the Middle Ob basin is significantly affected by several factors caused significant changes in the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems.

Aftereffects of hydraulic construction. In 1956, the construction of the Novosibirsk hydroelectric power station resulted in the blocking of the Ob River. In the Middle Ob basin, hydraulic construction mainly affects river runoff control and its decrease during spring, as water is stored in the reservoir at this time (Savkin 2000; Zemtsov et al. 2019). However, spring spawning fish reproduce during spring floods, with most of these species being phytophilic, meaning they spawn in the flooded vegetation of last year's floodplain. The water level rise and duration of floodplain flooding in spring play a crucial role in the reproduction, feeding, and ield of annual juvenile fish (Ioganzen 1953; Trifonova 1982; Rostovtsev and Interesova 2015). Only periods with increased water levels during the spring flood are favorable for the formation of stocks of spring-spawning phytophilic fish species. During years with average water levels, the areas of spawning and feeding grounds decrease by 50%.

The control of the Ob River led to significant interannual fluctuations in the duration of floodplain flooding. During low-water years, the floodplain is flooded for a period that is insufficient for the embryonic stage, resulting in the death of eggs when the spawning grounds dry up. In some years, the spring flood level is so low that the water does not reach the floodplain, greatly reducing the abundance of spring-spawning phytophilous fish species. As a result, hydraulic construction had an extremely negative effect on the abundance of the main commercial fish species in the Middle Ob, including ide, roach, perch, and pike.

To address the consequences of the decrease in water level and maintain the potential fishing resource in the Middle Ob basin, it is essential to implement measures for fishery amelioration of the floodplain. Amelioration aims to provide the required water level for early fish ontogenesis in spawning grounds and ensure the free migration of juveniles from these areas (Vovk 1951; Ioganzen et al. 1958; Rostovtsev et al. 2015; 2020). Additionally, the construction of the Novosibirsk hydroelectric dam disrupted migration routes and isolated a significant part of the spawning areas for semi-anadromous fish species, such as Siberian sturgeon and nelma.

Estimates suggest that the isolated spawning grounds for Siberian sturgeon were at least 40%, and for nelma, it was at least 70% (Perkevich 1952; Popov 2010). All these processes had a negative impact on the abundance of whitefish and sturgeon species (Koneva 1972; Enshina, 1999; Krokhalevsky et al. 2018; Popov 2022).

Pollution. The natural waters of the Middle Ob basin in the Tomsk region and Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug are polluted with organic substances of anthropogenic origin, including alkanes with an even number of carbon atoms, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organochlorine compounds, and easily oxidizable organic substances. In addition, an increased content of inorganic nitrogen compounds (NH4+ and NO2–) and heavy metals has been detected in the water (Savichev 2010, Savichev, Guseva, 2020). Consequently, surface water in the Tomsk region and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug mainly falls under quality classes III and IV (Popkov and Vorobyov 2005; State report... 2021, 2022; Report on environmental ... 2021).

The source of pollution is large settlements located near the Ob and its tributaries, including Novosibirsk, Kemerovo, Novokuznetsk, Tomsk, Nizhnevartovsk, and Surgut (Nikanorov et al. 2011; Popov and Trifonova 2002; Stoyashcheva 2018). Coal mining, metallurgical and chemical companies, and petroleum enterprises significantly contribute to water pollution in the Kemerovo region (Svarovskaya et al. 2018). In the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, oil pollution is a relevant problem, with over 2.5 thousand accidents occurring annually in this region, affecting the environment, including water bodies (Moiseenko et al. 2010; Soromotin 2011; Moskovchenko and Babushkin 2014). At the end of the twentieth century, the water bodies on the right bank of the Ob in the Nizhnevartovsky district, which drain the territory of the Samotlorskoye, Uryevskoye, Potochnoye, and Las-Eganskoye deposits, were subject to salt pollution (Moskovchenko et al. 2017). In recent years, there has been a reduction in salt and oil water pollution in the Ob and its tributaries (Moskovchenko and Babushkin 2014; Moskovchenko et al. 2017).

It is assumed that pollution caused the disappearance of tugun in the Middle Ob basin and reduced the natural reproduction of muksun and nelma in the spawning grounds of the Lower Tom (Vovk 1948; Ioganzen 1953; Gundrizer et al. 1984; Popov and Trifonova 2002).

Overexploitation of aquatic biological resources. Fishing has always been a vital source of nutrition for the human population of the Middle Ob basin. Historically, commercially valuable fish species such as Siberian sturgeon, sterlet, muksun, and nelma have been subjected to increased fishing pressure. However, at present, the catch of these fish species is negligible, particularly in the Tomsk region (Fig. 3). This is primarily due to excessive illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing (Koneva 1972; Chupretov and Zamyatin 1990; Enshina 1998; Gundrizer et al. 2000; Matkovsky 2010; Rostovtsev and Interesova 2015; Matkovsky et al. 2017; Krokhalevsky et al. 2018).

Figure 3.Catch dynamics of valuable fish species in Tomsk region.

Expansion of alien species. In the early 1930s, alien fish species were introduced into the Middle Ob basin. Fertilized eggs of Valaam whitefish from Lake Ladoga were brought into Lake Bolshoye in the upper reaches of the Chulym River in 1931 and 1932, totaling 9.25 million eggs (Ioganzen and Bashmakov 1952; Bashmakov 1953). Later in the late 1930s, eggs for introduction into Lake Ingol were mixed with Ladoga vendace and Peipus whitefish (Bashmakov 1953; Podlesny 1964, 1969). This resulted in the formation of self-sustaining populations of vendace in Ingol and Bolshoye Lakes, which still exist today (Zlotnik and Romanov 2011). Additionally, common bream was introduced to Lake Bolshoye in 1957 (Lobovikova 1968). However, it was only in 1980 that this species was found in the lower and middle reaches of the Chulym River, likely due to self-dispersal from the Novosibirsk reservoir, where these species were introduced as part of large-scale fish acclimatization in the twentieth century (Interesova 2016). The population of common pike perch in the Middle Ob basin is not abundant (Rostovtsev et al. 2016), while the number of common bream in the region is rapidly increasing (Zlotnik and Romanov 2015; Interesova et al. 2017), potentially impacting native benthic fish species due to possible food competition with the invader (Popkov et al. 2008). Common carp appeared in the Middle Ob basin as a result of self-dispersal from the Novosibirsk reservoir at the end of the 20th century. Belica, bleak, Amur sleeper, and nine-spine stickleback likely entered the Middle Ob through the upper part of the basin. Nikolsky’s loach was found in this area at the beginning of the twentieth century, having previously been known from the Upper Ob basin (Interesova et al. 2010).

Currently, the share of alien species in the Middle Ob basin's composition is 24%, which is critical, as some of the introduced species pose a high invasive risk (Interesova et al. 2020).

Climate change. The impact of climate change on the fish population in western Siberia is not thoroughly studied in current literature. However, it is believed that rising temperatures may lead to an increase in the growth rate of cyprinids and a decrease in the yield of whitefish species due to a shortened feeding period in the northern floodplain of the region (Matkovsky 2019a, 2019b). While such observations are available for the Middle Ob basin, the projected climate warming in Siberia (Groisman et al. 2012) is expected to significantly alter the fish habitat conditions across the entire region (Kirpotin et al. 2021; Savichev et al. 2022).

These changes could impact the spawning period of fish, potentially leading to earlier emergence of juveniles for spring-spawning species, thereby extending the growing season. However, the consequences for autumn-spawning species due to reduced feeding and incubation periods remain unclear. It is anticipated that climate warming will result in the northward expansion of heat-loving alien fish species, constrained by the spawning temperature threshold (Interesova 2022). This expansion seems to be already occurring, as the habitats of belica, bleak, Amur sleeper (Reshetnikov et al. 2017), and the Nikolsky loach (Interesova et al. 2022b) have recently expanded in the Middle Ob basin.

Furthermore, commercial breeding of the silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, has led to its naturalization and subsequent distribution in the Ob River bed from fish farms. As a planktivorous species, it has the potential to significantly disrupt the primary link in the trophic chain. The adverse effects of its naturalization are well-documented in North America (Chick and Pegg 2001; Parker et al. 2016; Kočovskė et al. 2018).

Riverbed anthropogenic transformation.The implementation of various economic projects involving soil movement in watercourses, such as sand and gravel extraction, and the construction of dams and bridges, leads to a transformation of the riverbed. This transformation occurs due to the disturbance of bottom topography at the impact site and changes in the hydrological regime of the watercourse. Consequently, there is a reformation of the accumulation-erosion riverbed processes downstream.

This factor is often overlooked in Siberia (Matkovsky 2019b); however, it can be particularly relevant for the Middle Ob. The disturbance caused by these economic activities can lead to the disappearance of local wintering pits and spawning grounds of sand and pebbles, crucial for sturgeon and whitefish, which will inevitably reduce the abundance of these fish species.


Over the past century, the fish species diversity in the Middle Ob basin has undergone significant changes. One species has gone extinct and nine alien species have become naturalized, resulting in a 27% increase in the total number of species. Presently, the ichthyofauna of the Middle Ob basin comprises 38 species of lamprey and fishes from 2 classes, 9 orders, 12 families, and 30 genera. The ichthyofauna of the Middle Ob is impacted by hydraulic construction, anthropogenic alteration of the river bed, pollution, overexploitation of aquatic biological resources (particularly commercially valuable fish species), the spread of alien species, and climate warming. However, with the exception of expansion and pollution, most of these factors currently affect the abundance of specific fish species rather than the overall composition of the ichthyofauna.


The study was funded by the State Assignment of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation No 0721-2020-0019 (VKP), the grant RSF No 23-16-00218 ‘Discussion of factors recognized as significant causes of changes in aquatic biodiversity ecosystems’ (LGK and SNK).


Albert JS, Destouni G, Duke-Sylvester SM, Magurran AE, Oberdorff T (2021) Scientists’ warning to humanity on the freshwater biodiversity crisis. Ambio 50: 85–94.

Babkin AM, Babkina IB, Interestova EA (2018) Size-age composition and catches of Coregonus peled in the Middle Ob (in Tomsk region). Bulletin of Fisheries Science 1(17): 55–63. [In Russian]

Bashmakov VN (1953) Acclimatization of whitefish in lakes Bolshoye and Ingol of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Proceedings of Tomsk State University 125: 167–182. [In Russian]

Bashmakova AY (1949) Changes in the fish species composition of the Tom river at the Tomsk fish plant. Proceedings of the Barabinsk branch of All-Union Research Institute on Lake and River Fisheries 3: 109–113. [In Russian]

Chick JH, Pegg MA (2001) Invasive carp in the Mississippi River Basin. Science 292(5525): 2250–2251.

Chupretov VM, Zamyatin VA (1990) Assessment of muksun reserves in the Ob. In: Animal resources in Siberia. Fish. Novosibirsk, 36–38. [In Russian]

Dudgeon D (2019) Multiple threats imperil freshwater biodiversity in the Anthropocene. Current Biology 29(19): 960–967.

Dudgeon D (2020) Freshwater Biodiversity: Status, Threats and Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 516 pp.

Enshina SA (1998) The current state of stocks of the Middle Ob sterlet. In: Biological diversity of Siberian fish. Tomsk, 233–234. [In Russian]

Enshina SA (1999) On the issue of natural reproduction of whitefish in the Upper Ob. In: Problems and prospects for the rational use of fish resources in Siberia. Krasnoyarsk, 36–41. [In Russian]

Gleick PH (1996) Basic Water Requirements for Human Activities: Meeting basic needs. Water International 21(2): 83–92.

Grill G, Lehner B, Thieme M, Geenen B, Tickner D, Antonelli F, Babu S, Borrelli P (2019) Mapping the world’s freeflowing rivers. Nature 569: 215–221.

Groisman PY, Blyakharchuk TA, Chernokulsky AV, Arzhanov MM, Marchesini LB, Bogdanova EG, Borzenkova II, Bulygina ON, Karpenko AA, Karpenko LV, Knight RW, Khon VCh, Korovin GN, Meshcherskaya AV, Mokhov II, Parfenova EI, Razuvaev VN, Speranskaya NA, Tchebakova NM, Vygodskaya NN (2012) Climate Changes in Siberia. In: Groisman P, Gutman G (Eds) Regional Environmental Changes in Siberia and Their Global Consequences. Springer Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer, Dordrecht, 57–109.

Gundrizer AN, Ioganzen BG, Krivoshchekov GM (1984) Fishes of Siberia. Tomsk State University Publishing House, Tomsk, 120 pp. [In Russian]

Gundrizer AN, Zalozny NA, Golubykh OS, Popkova LA, Ruzanova AI (2000) The state of study of hydrobionts of the Middle Ob River-Bed. Siberian Journal of Ecology 3: 315–322. [In Russian]

Heino J, Virkkala R, Toivonen H (2009) Climate change and freshwater biodiversity: detected patterns, future trends and adaptations in northern regions. Biological Reviews 84(1): 39–54.

Interesova EA (2016) Alien fish species in the Ob River basin. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions 7(2): 156–167.

Interesova EA, Babkina IB, Romanov VI, Pozdnyak IV, Davletshina GI, Trifonov VA (2022a) New data on small lampreys of the genus Lethenteron species (Petromyzontidae) of the Tom River, a typical habitat of the Siberian Brook Lamprey Lethenteron kessleri. Journal of Ichthyology 62: 1230–1236.

Interestova EA, Babkina IB, Suslyaev VV, Blokhin AN, Reshetnikova SN, Babkin AM, Kolesov AN (2018) Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus L. in the Middle Ob basin (Tomsk region). Distribution, fishery dynamics, age and growth. Bulletin of Fisheries Science 2(18): 60–71. [In Russian]

Interesova EA, Romanov VI, Davletshina GI, Fedorova VS, Trifonov VA (2022b) Dissemination of Misgurnus nikolskyi (Cobitidae) in the South of Western Siberia. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions 3: 301–304.

Interesova EA, Rostovtsev AA (2021) Catches, age and growth of roach Rutilus rutilus (Cyprinidae) of the Middle Ob (within the Tomsk region). Fish farming and fisheries 4(183): 31–40.[In Russian]

Interesova EA, Rostovtsev AA, Egorov EV, Zaitsev VF, Vizer AM (2017) Commercial value of alien fish species in water bodies of the south of Western Siberia. Bulletin of Fisheries Science 2 (14): 36–44. [In Russian]

Interestova EA, Rostovtsev AA, Enshina SA (2022c) Catches and size-age composition of the spawning stock of muksun Coregonus muksun of the Middle Ob (Tomsk region). Fish farming and fisheries 7 (198): 464–472. [In Russian]

Interesova EA, Villizzi L, Copp GH (2020) Risk screening of the potential invasiveness of non-native freshwater fishes in the Ob river basin (West Siberian Plain, Russia). Regional Environmental Change 20: 64.

Interesova EA, Yadrenkina EN, Vasil’eva ED (2010) The first record of Misgurnus nikolskyi (Cobitidae) in the south of Western Siberia. Journal of Ichthyology 3: 281–284.

Ioganzen BG (1948) Etudes on the geography and genesis of the ichthyofauna of Siberia. III. Zoogeographic areas of the West Siberian region of the Arctic Sea province of the Palearctic. Proceedings of Tomsk State University 8: 8–31. [In Russian]

Ioganzen BG (1953) Fishery regions of Western Siberia and their biological and commercial features. Proceedings of Tomsk State University 125: 7–44. [In Russian]

Ioganzen BG, Bashmakov VN (1952) Acclimatization of Ludoga whitefish in the southern part of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Proceedings of Tomsk State University 18: 95–108. [In Russian]

Ioganzen BG, Petkevich AN, Marusenko YaI (1958) Floodplain of the Middle Ob and possibilities for improving its fishery use. Bulletin of All-Union Research Institute on Lake and River Fisheries 44: 29–48. [In Russian]

Karasev GL (2006) Zoogeographic zoning of the West Siberian region by the fish fauna. In: Ecology of fish in the Ob-Irtysh basin. Association of Scientific Publications KMK, Moscow, 37–70. [In Russian]

Kirpotin SN, Callaghan TV, Peregon AM, Babenko AS, Berman DI, Bulakhova NA, Byzaakay AA, Chernykh TM, Chursin V, Interesova EA, Gureev SP, Kerchev IA, Kharuk VI, Khovalyg AO, Kolpashchikov LA, Krivets SA, Kvasnikova ZN, Kuzhevskaia IV, Merzlyakov OE, Nekhoroshev OG, Popkov VK, Pyak AI, Valevich TO, Volkov IV, Volkova II (2021) Impacts of environmental change on biodiversity and vegetation dynamics in Siberia. Ambio 50(11): 1926–1952.

Kočovský PM, Chapman DC, Qian SS (2018) ‘Asian carp’ is socially and scientifically problematic. Let us replace it. Fisheries 43(7): 311–316.

Korotaev VN (2004) The Ob river. In: Osipov SYu (Ed.) Great Russian Encyclopedia. Vol. 23. Moscow, 615–616. [In Russian]

Krokhalevsky VR, Babkina IB, Vizer AM, Dorogin MA, Zhirkov FN, Zaitsev VF, Interesova EA, Karpova LN, Peterfeld VA, Yankova NV (2018) Status of sturgeon stocks in water bodies of Siberia. Fisheries 19(3): 269–284.[In Russian]

Lobovikova AA (1968) Bream acclimatization in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. In: Acclimatization of fish and invertebrates in water bodies of the USSR. Moscow, 219–222. [In Russian]

Matkovsky AK (2010) Degradation processes in the muksun population of the Ob River and the necessary measures to restore its abundance. In: Biology, biotechnology of breeding and the state of whitefish stocks. State Research and Production Center for Fisheries, Tyumen, 176–180. [In Russian]

Matkovsky AK (2019a) Changes in the ichthyocenoses of the Ob-Irtysh fishery region under anthropogenic factors and global warming. In: Problems of ensuring environmental safety and sustainable development of the Arctic Territories. Arkhangelsk, 488–496. [In Russian]

Matkovsky AK (2019 b) Reasons for the decline in stocks of semi-anadromous whitefish in the Ob-Irtysh basin. Bulletin of Fisheries Science 6.1(21): 27–48. [In Russian]

Matkovsky AK, Kochetkov PA, Stepanova VB, Yankova NV, Abdullina GH, Golova VG, Vylezhinskiy AV, Korshunov AV, Tunev VE, Bondar' MS, Zaitsev VF, Naumkina DI, Shipovalov LA, Babkina IB, Interesova EA, Efimova EI, Reshetnikova SN (2017) Provision of food for the necessary volumes of artificial reproduction of sturgeon and white-fish species in water bodies of the Ob-Irtysh basin. Bulletin of Fisheries Science 4.1(13): 20–40. [In Russian]

Moiseenko TI, Soromotin AV, Shalabodov AD (2010) Water quality and pollution standardization methodology. Bulletin of Tyumen State University 7: 5–19. [In Russian]

Moskovchenko DV, Babushkin AG (2014) Oil pollution of surface waters in the territory of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Yugra. Ecology and Industry of Russia 4: 34–38. [In Russian]

Moskovchenko DV, Babushkin AG, Ubaidulaev AA (2017) Salt pollution of surface waters in the oil fields of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yugra. Water Resources 44(1): 91–102.[In Russian]

Nikanorov AM, Khoruzhaya TA, Mironova TV (2011) Analysis of the effect of megalopolises on water quality in surface water bodies by ecological-toxicological characteristics. Water Resources 38(5): 621–628.

Pallas PS (1786) Journey to different provinces of the Russian State. Part 2. Book. 2. Imperial Russian Academy, St. Petersburg. Available from: [In Russian]

Parker AD, Glover DC, Finney ST, Rogers PB, Stewart JG, Simmonds RL Jr. (2016) Fish distribution, abundance, and behavioral interactions within a large electric dispersal barrier designed to prevent Asian carp movement. Canadian Journal of Fishery and Aquatic Science 73: 1060–1071.

Petkevich AN (1952) Biology and reproduction of sturgeon in the Middle and Upper Ob due to hydrological construction. Proceedings of Tomsk State University 119: 39–64. [In Russian]

Podlesny AV (1964) Biological substantiation of the reconstruction of commercial fish in Upper Chulym lakes. Fisheries of Eastern Siberia. Proceedings of the Siberian Branch of All-Union Research Institute on Lake and River Fisheries 8: 7–65. [In Russian]

Podlesny AV (1969) Results of fish acclimatization in the lakes of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Fisheries 6:16–18. [In Russian]

Poff NL, Schmidt JC (2016) How dams can go with the flow. Science 353 (6304): 1099–1100.

Popkov VK, Popkova LA, Ruzanova AI (2008) Features of the ecology of bream Abramis brama (L.) and consequences of its acclimatization in the Middle Ob basin. Bulletin of Tomsk State University 306:154–157. [In Russian]

Popkov VK, Vorobyov DC (2005) Oil products in water and bottom sediments of the Vasyugan river basin. Bulletin of Tomsk Polytechnic University 308(4): 48–50. [In Russian]

Popov PA (2009) Species composition and distribution of fish in Siberia. Issues of Ichthyology 49(4): 451–463.[In Russian]

Popov PA (2010) Formation of ichthyocenoses and ecology of commercial fish in Siberian reservoirs. Academic Publishing House ‘Geo’, Novosibirsk, 216 pp. [In Russian]

Popov PA (2022) Effect of the level regime of the Ob river on the fish ecology. Bulletin of the Altai branch of the Russian Geographical Society 65: 59–81.[In Russian]

Popov PA, Trifonova OV (2002) Effect of pollution of the Tom River on the state of its ichthyofauna. Ob Bulletin 1-2: 23–33. [In Russian]

Reid AJ, Carlson AK, Creed IF, Eliason EJ, Gell PA, Johnson PT, Kidd KA, MacCormack TJ, Olden JD, Ormerod SJ, Smol JP, Taylor WW, Tockner K, Vermaire JC, Dudgeon D, Cooke SJ (2019) Emerging threats and persistent conservation challenges for freshwater biodiversity. Biological Reviews 94: 849–873.

Report on the environmental situation in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Yugra, in 2020 (2021) Khanty-Mansiysk, 191 pp. [In Russian]

Reshetnikov AN, Golubtsov AS, Zhuravlev VB, Lomakin SL, Rezvyi AS (2017) Range expansion of rotan Perccottus glenii, sunbleak Leucaspius delineatus, and bleak Alburnus alburnus in the Ob River basin. Contemporary Problems of Ecology 10: 612–620.

Reshetnikova YuS (Ed.) (2002) Atlas of freshwater fish of Russia. Volume 1. Nauka, Moscow, 379 pp. [In Russian]

Revenga C, Brunner J, Henninger N, Kassem K, Payne R (2000) Pilot analysis of global ecosystems. Freshwater systems. World Resources Institute Washington, 65 pp.

Romanov VI (2017) On the taxonomic composition of the graylings (Thymallidae) from the Ob and Yenisei river basins. International Journal of Environmental Studies 74(05): 845–853.

Romanov VI, Interesova EA, Dyldin YV, Babkina IB, Karmanova OG, Vorobiev DS (2017) An annotated list and current state of ichthyofauna of the Middle Ob river basin. International Journal of Environmental Studies 74(05): 818–830.

Rostovtsev AA, Interesova EA (2015) Fish resources of Tomsk region. Fisheries 5: 48–49. [In Russian]

Rostovtsev AA, Interesova EA, Abramov AL (2020) Fishery reclamation: promising technologies for the sustainable use of aquatic biological resources of the Middle Ob. Fish Farming 3: 80–82.[In Russian]

Rostovtsev AA, Interesova EA, Babkina IB, Vizer AM, Simakova AV (2016) Catches, age and growth of common pike perch Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Middle Ob basin. Bulletin of Novosibirsk State Agrarian University 3 (40): 105–112. [In Russian]

Rostovtsev AA, Khakimov RM, Interestova EA, Babkina IB (2015) Fishery reclamation of the Middle Ob floodplain: problems and prospects. Siberian Bulletin of Agricultural Science 1 (242): 68–74. [In Russian]

Ruzsky MD (1920) Fish of the Tom River. Bulletin of the Siberian Research Institute: 29–40. [In Russian]

Savichev OG (2010) Water resources of Tomsk region. Tomsk Polytechnic University Publ., Tomsk, 248 pp. [In Russian]

Savichev OG, Guseva NV (2020) Methodology of management of river basins geochemical balance in Western Siberia. Bulletin of Tomsk Polytechnic University. Geo Аssets Engineering 331(5): 28–45. [In Russian]

Savichev O, Moiseeva J, Guseva N (2022) Changes in the groundwater levels and regimes in the taiga zone of Western Siberia as a result of global warming. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 147: 1121–1131.

Savkin VM (2000) Ecological and geographical changes in the river basins of Western Siberia. Nauka, Novosibirsk, 152 pp. [In Russian]

Soromotin AV (2011) Environmental effect of various stages of oil and gas field development in the taiga zone of Tyumen region. Siberian Ecological Journal 18(6): 813–822. [In Russian]

State Report on the State and Protection of the Environment of Tomsk region in 2020 (2021) Tomsk, 133 pp. [In Russian]

State Report on the State and Protection of the Environment of the Tomsk region in 2021 (2022) Tomsk, 123 pp. [In Russian]

State Water Register. Available from: (accessed on 01.10.2023).

Stoyashcheva NV (2018) Anthropogenic load on water bodies of the Tom river basin. Geography and Natural Resources 3: 95–103. [In Russian]

Svarovskaya LI, Altunina LK, Yashchenko IG (2018) Hydrochemical studies of water bodies in the territory of oil production complexes. Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics 31(6): 468–472. [In Russian]

Trifonova OV (1982) Changes in the conditions of reproduction of spring spawning fish in the Middle Ob due to the river flow control. Ecology 4: 68–73. [In Russian]

Varpakhovsky NA (1902) Fishing in the Ob River basin. Part 2. Printing House of Isidore Goldberg, St. Petersburg. Available from: [In Russian]

Vovk FI (1948) Nelma of the Ob. Proceedings of the Siberian branch of All-Union Research Institute on Lake and River Fisheries 7 (2): 3–79. [In Russian]

Vovk FI (1951) Fishery value of the Middle Ob floodplain and its melioration. Proceedings of Tomsk State University 115: 105–114. [In Russian]

Winemiller KO, McIntyre PB, Castello L, Fluet-Chouinard E, Giarrizzo T, Nam S, Baird IG, Darwall W (2016) Balancing hydropower and biodiversity in the Amazon, Congo, and Mekong. Science 351(6269): 128–129.

Wrona FJ, Reist JD (2013) Freshwater ecosystems. In: Meltofte H (Ed.) Arctic biodiversity assessment: status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Denmark, 335–377.

Wrona J, Prowse F, Reist T, Gibson J, Hobbie J, Jeppesen J, King E, Köck J, Korhola G, Lévesque A, Macdonald L, Skvortsov R, Warwick VV (2005) Freshwater Ecosystems and Fisheries. In: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Chapter 8. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 353–452.

Zemtsov VA, Vershinin DA, Khromykh VV, Khromykh OV (2019) Long-term dynamics of maximum flood water levels in the middle course of the Ob River. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 400: 012004.

Zlotnik DV, Romanov VI (2011) The current state of the European vendace population introduced in lake Ingol. Fish Farming and Fisheries 4: 23–26. [In Russian]

Zlotnik DV, Romanov VI (2015) The current state of the stock and the morphological characteristics of the bream Abramis brama (L.) of the Chulym river (Ob river basin). Bulletin of Novosibirsk State Agrarian University 1(34): 132–137. [In Russian]