In this paper, the role of edaphic factors and plant, as well as the spatial variables was revealed in the structuring of the forest biogeocenosis soil macrofauna community in the river Dnepr arena within the nature reserve of "Dnepr-Orelsky" (Ukraine). 44 species of soil animals were found in the test polygon after manual sorting of soil samples. The density of the soil macrofauna in studied polygon is 321.5 ± 43.2 ind./m2. It is shown that the soil macrofauna community is structured under the influence of edaphic, plant and spatial factors. The role of these factors is different at fine-scale, medium-scale and broad-scale spatial levels. The variation of the community structure under the influence of edaphic and plant factors can be classified as deterministic processes, which is carried out within the framework of the ecological niche theory. The spatial component of the variation can be attributed to the result of the neutral nature of the factors. However, it should be noted that the spatial variation of plant community also is subject to the deterministic and neutral control. This manifests itself in the spatial structuring of plant factors. The spatial variation of soil properties has a similar nature. Soil as environment undergoes structuring influence of vegetation, where there are spatial patterns of soil properties. Scale effects of variation in space manifest themselves in different ways for the representatives of different ecological groups of macrofauna. For litter forms the most characteristic spatial patterns on large and medium-scale level, and for proper soil and burrowing forms - on fine-scale level.
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